Salat-ul-Qasr or The Traveller’s Prayer-Part II

In our previous blog we dealt with the definition of travel for the purpose of praying Salat-ul-Qasr. In this blog we intent to shed some light on what a day’s journey mean in modern units of measurement. The Prophetic traditions use the term ‘day’s travel’ in the books of ahadith. The standard units of measurement for travel during early Islam were the farsakh and the barīd.                                                                    

Barīd was a distance that a messenger could travel before he needed to stop to allow his animal to rest.

Farsakh appears to be a Persian unit of measurement that the Arabs adopted. A barid is made up of four Farasakh.

The question arises as to how much distance could be travelled in one day so that the number of days could be changed into distance. Without going into the minute details of this issue, the Hanbalis, Shafies and the Malikis believe this distance (to be eligible for shortening the prayer) to be 16 Farasakh and the Hanafis believe it to be 15 Farasakh. There are differences of opinion about the conversion into modern units. Hanafis take this distance approximately equal to 78 kms or 48 miles while as Imam Nawawi converts this into about 139 kms. There is no precise and agreed upon conversion factor for translating a day’s journey into a tangible and precise measure of distance. The modes of transport back in those days (i.e. 1400 years) and now are completely different. Given the different modes of transport that we use in contemproray times, it is extremely difficult to actually measure and fix an exact numerical figure to this.

However, the opinion of Imam Ibn Taymiyyah is different from all the four schools of thought. He says, The Prophet PBUH did not specify any distance and it does not make sense that the Shariah would place a numerical value when such unit-definitions were not known or followed by the majority of that generation. The purpose of this ruling regarding shortening the prayer is to ease the burden upon the traveller by allowing him to shorten the prayer.  So Ibn Taymiyya’s opinion that a traveller’ is one who is customarily considered one.

The second issue is for how long does one remain a traveller? 

The Hanafi School considers a traveller to be someone who intends to reside at a place for fifteen days or less (inclusive of the day that he intends to travel). The Malikis, Shāfiʿīs, and Hanbalis claimed that the time that makes a traveller into a resident is four days. They base their argument on the command of the Prophet PBUH that the Emigrants (Muhajirun) who were performing Hajj with him should not stay in Makkah for more than three days [Reported by Muslim].

Ibn Taymiyyah holds the opinion, like his opinion about the distance of the travel, that there exists no explicit and specific time frame which converts a traveller (musafir) into a resident (muqeem).  Therefore, he felt that a traveller would remain a traveller even if he stayed at a specific location for a longer period of time, as long as his lifestyle was that of a ‘traveller’. Ibn Taymiyya also pointed out that there are authentic narrations that indicate the Prophet PBUH would pray qaṣr for more than fifteen days. There is the Hadith of Jabir that the Prophet PBUH camped at Tabuk praying qaṣr for twenty days (Reported by Abu Dawud). Another is the hadith of Ibn ʿAbbās in which he reported that the Prophet PBUH stayed in Makkah nineteen days, praying qaṣr (Reported by al-Bukhārī).

All the four schools interpret these evidences by claiming, that the Prophet PBUH did not know how long he would camp at Tabuk during that expedition, However  Ibn Taymiyyah holds the view that the Prophet PBUH suggested no specific number of days. At times He PBUH prayed Qasr for more than four or fifteen days.

But perhaps understanding that this open ended permission had potential problems and probably was more prone to misuse, Ibn Taymiyya did feel that the opinion of four days was safer to follow. Ibn Taymiyya himself did not unequivocally allow such a person to pray qaṣr for a limitless number of days. Even though he said that it is permitted and that one should not rebuke those who do this, he also said that it was better to pray full.  (Ibn Taymiyya, Majmūʾ al-Fatāwā 24/17, 18).

In such matters, one could follow any of the four schools or the opinion of Ibn Taymiyyah and one should not look down upon other for following a particular practice.

Regarding the legal status of Qasr, the Hanafis deem it to be obligatory for the traveler and state that if the traveler prays the regular prayer, he will in fact be sinful. The other schools say that shortening the prayer is preferred, but not obligatory.

The Hanafi School does not allow combining the prayers (jama bain asalat) except during Hajj. A vast majority of other scholars allowed Zuhr and Aṣr to be joined, and Maghrib and Ishā to be joined. They say that this should preferably be done only during the actual travel.

Salat-ul-Qasr or The Traveller’s Prayer

Salat-ul-Qasr means the shortening of prayers usually offered when on a journey. The Quran says, “And if you travel in the land, there is no sin on you that you shorten your prayers (taqṣurū min al-ṣalāt) if you fear that the unbelievers may harm you.” [An-Nisa’ 4:101].

Even though the verse mentions ‘fear’ as a condition, it is no longer a requirement. ʿUmar bin al-Khattab was asked how it was still permissible to shorten prayers even though there was no ‘fear’ remaining. He replied, “I asked the Prophet PBUH the exact same question, and he said, ‘this is a charity that Allah has given to you, so accept His charity,” [Muslim]. In other words, Allah has graciously lifted the condition mentioned and allowed Muslims to shorten the prayer while travelling even if there is no fear of any attack by enemy forces.

The Prophet PBUH used to shorten his prayer during travel and never prayed any four-unit prayer while in a state of travel. (Ibn Taymiyya, Majmūʾ al-Fatāwā, 24/8). 

There is a unanimous consensus amongst all the scholars of Islam that a traveller who is undertaking a legitimate journey may shorten the four-unit prayers to two. But the difference of opinion remains between scholars and various schools of thought (Maslak) as to what constitutes ‘Travel’ for offering Qasr prayers. The issues concerning this stem from

  • The distance travelled and
  • The number of days of stay for which Qasr is valid.

In this blog we delve into the first issue and Insha Allah, the second issue will be discussed in our next blog.

Narrated Anas RA, “when the Prophet PBUH went out on a journey of three miles or three Farasikh, he used to pray two Raka’at,” [Muslim]

Two doubts arise in this hadith

1) Whether it is three miles or three Farasikh. The original Hadith does not state it, but it is the doubt of a reporter in the chain of narrators, as to whether Anas RA used the words three miles or three Farasikh.

2) Farasikh is the plural of Farasakh. It is a measure of distance in Persian. One Farasakh is approximately equal to three miles.

According to the Hanafi School, ‘Travel’ is a three day journey. In other words, it is the distance that a traveller on a camel of average speed would traverse in three complete days. This is the position of the Companion Ibn Masʿūd RA. This position has been inferred from the following Hadith of Prophet PBUH where he said, ‘’It is not allowed for a woman who believes in Allah and the Last Day that she travel for a distance of three days without her father, son, husband, brother or any mahram.” [Muslim]

Whereas Hanbali, Shafee and the Maliki School consider Travel as a journey of two days based on the following Hadith, “It is not allowed for a woman who believes in Allah and the Last Day that she travels for a distance of two days without a mahram. [Muslim]

Imam Bukhari in his Saheeh considers Travel as a journey of one day. Prophet PBUH said, “It is not allowed for a woman who believes in Allah and the Last Day that she travels for a distance of one day without a mahram. [Bukhārī]

The last opinion on this is that a journey is not defined by how much one has travelled but by what one does and how one prepares for it. This is the opinion of Ibn Qudama, Ibn Taymiyya, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Shawkanī and others. They opine that there is no scriptural evidence that defines ‘travel’, and hence they resort to what is culturally understood to be as ‘travel’.

Ibn Taymiyya disagreed with any specific distance that other scholars sought to derive. According to him, there is no explicit evidence from the Quran, Sunnah, language or custom of that generation that would be binding on later Muslims.

In fact, all three of the previous opinions use the same basic Hadith that prevents women from travelling without a male companion – yet, as is obvious, each Hadith uses a different limit. This in itself shows that the intention of the Hadith is not to define the distance of what constitutes ‘travel’.

In his Majmūʾ al-Fatāwā, (24/15), Ibn Taymiyya writes:

‘’a person might leave his village to go to the desert in order to collect wood, and he leaves for two or three days, and he will be a traveller, even though the distance might be less than a mile! In contrast to this, another person might go [a longer distance] and come back the same day, and he will not be a traveller. This is because the first person will take provision for the journey, and bags [with his necessities], whereas the second person will not. Therefore, even a near distance can be considered a ‘travel’ if someone stays for a period of time, and a longer distance will not be considered a travel if a person stays for a short period. A ‘travel’ is therefore defined by the actions that are required in order for that journey to be called ‘travelling’… and this is a matter that people recognize by their own customs.’’

Therefore, according to Ibn Taymiyya, a ‘travel’ is not merely a distance but also a state of mind. We must know that in order to be eligible to offer a two Raka’at prayer, no distance has been specified in any Hadith. In fact, this concession has been kept open to the effect that it is permissible to offer a two Raka’at prayer during any trip which is considered travelling.

Inshallah we shall continue the topic in the subsequent blog Salat-ul-Qasr or The Traveller’s Prayer-Part II.

[ Authored by Tariq Jameel ]